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澳门玄机图-PFOS-and-PFAS-2.jpg (1)

PFAS analysis

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With deep expertise in chemical analysis and state-of-the art laboratories in the UK, 澳门玄机图 can provide PFAS听analysis for soil, sediments, wastewater, food and animal tissues.

Sources of PFAS

The history of PFAS analysis in the UK

PFAS rose to the public鈥檚 attention in the UK, in the aftermath of the 2005 Buncefield oil disaster. In order to bring this fire under control, PFOS (Perfluorooctane Sulfonate) was used as a key surfactant in hundreds of tons of firefighting foam. PFOS and PFOA were subsequently found to be present in the main aquifer below the site and further monitoring showed its presence in numerous water sources throughout the country.

In 2009, PFOS was added to Annex B of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Following this, measures were taken to restrict its production and use and further restriction was also proposed for PFAS substances containing C7 or C8 perfluorocarbon chains.听

In 2013 PFOS and its derivatives were added to Annex I of the Priority Hazardous Directive (2013/39/EC). The EU surface water annual average environmental quality standard (AA-EQS) was set to 0.65ng/L and applied in 2018.

The UK Environment Agency has published Soil Screening Values for PFOS of 0.014 mg/Kg (dry weight).听Similarly, the UK Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) guidance places a tiered risk assessment approach with a trigger value of 10ng/L on PFOS and PFOA, above which further monitoring must be undertaken. This would be based on a list of 47 PFAS chemicals which include 19 of the 20 PFAS chemicals listed in the revised European Drinking Water directive.

Following large scale monitoring programmes such as UK Chemicals Investigation Programme (CIP) and , we know that PFAS chemicals are present in the majority of our surface water bodies. The EA state that in 470 fresh water bodies monitored since 2016, only 8% of sites had concentrations below the EQS for PFOS (from 0.053 ng/L to 84 ng/L), and only 3% of estuarine and costal waters monitored were below the EQS. Furthermore, from the CIP phase 2 monitoring programme which looked at 450 Waste Water Treatment Works, 90% of samples downstream of the discharge are exceeding the EQS. Most samples upstream of the works are already at the limit or exceeding the EQS.

Our expertise in PFAS analysis

The 澳门玄机图 Bedford laboratory was one of the first laboratories in the UK to gain UKAS accreditation for the analysis of a range PFAS chemicals following the monitoring required at the Buncefield oil terminal. Our laboratory team has been instrumental in providing analytical support during the extensive remediation and clean-up project and then providing routine monitoring.

We have been providing ISO 17025 accredited analysis of both PFOS and PFOA as part of the UK Chemicals Investigation Programme for the last 12 years in line with EU AA-EQS targets and with limits of detection for both substances in water, down to 0.09ng/L. This is roughly equivalent to detecting a single drop of PFOS in 44 Olympic size swimming pools.

We carry out analysis of PFAS chemicals in line with the European Drinking Water Directive list of 20 and the UK Drinking Water Inspectorate list of 47 which we have now extended to include 54 targeted PFAS chemicals as 0.1ng/L.

As shorter chain PFASs听 (<C7) are less retained by granulated activated carbon treatment systems, we have been providing analytical support to water companies, consultancies and university pilot trials in order to monitor a wide range of PFASs. This has helped our clients to evaluate their treatment options and understand the risks posed by other currently unregulated substances.

We have also been recently involved in the analysis of landfill leachate from open and closed landfill sites on behalf of the Environment Agency and the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) to assess the potential risks of these forever chemicals from these sites. We can also provide analysis for soil, sediment, food and animal tissues.

Quality and experience

澳门玄机图 has been accredited for the analysis of these chemicals since 2005 and has years of experience in the analysis of these chemicals at ultra-low levels including 12 years producing analysis data for the UK Chemical Investigation Programme as well as years of successful participation in external Performance Testing in schemes such as AQS, Aquacheck and Quasimeme.听 澳门玄机图 is also a member of the Environment Agency PFAS laboratory steering group which links into the wider European data sharing network.

EU DWD PFAS 20 List analysis

In line with the new proposed EU council amendment to Directive 98/83/EC Annex I and III, which now includes 20 PFAS compounds and sets a Sum of PFASs limit of 0.1ug/l, this reflects the World Health Organisation鈥檚 recommendations.

Using LC-MS/MS 澳门玄机图 can detect sub nanogram levels of these PFAS compound in surface water, groundwater and treated effluents.

PFAS 20 List from Annex III

  • Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA)
  • Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPA)
  • Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA)
  • Perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA)
  • Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)
  • Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)
  • Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA)
  • Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA)
  • Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA)
  • Perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA)
  • Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS)
  • Perfluoropentane sulfonic acid (PFPS)
  • Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS)
  • Perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS)
  • Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)
  • Perfluorononane sufonic acid (PFNS)
  • Perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS)
  • Perfluoroundecene sulfonic acid
  • Perfluorododecane sulfonic acid
  • Perfluorotridecane sulfonic acid

PFAS 54 suite including the DWI PFAS 47 List

The UK drinking water inspectorate as of the 31st December 2021 requires that all drinking water is monitored for a list of 47 PFAS compounds in order to gather further information on their levels and prevalence in UK supplies.听 澳门玄机图 has developed a targeted method to detect 54 PFAS compounds in one run to assist water companies and private supplies to meet this new regulatory requirement and have been granted UKAS accreditation for 48 of these PFAS at sub-nanogram levels in ground water, surface water, drinking water (non-regulatory), untreated sewage and treated sewage effluent.

List of 54 PFAS included in the standard analysis suite

Abbreviation

CAS Reg No Description
PFBA 375-22-4 perfluoro-n-butanoic acid听
PFPeA 2706-90-3 perfluoro-n-pentanoic acid听
PFHxA 307-24-4 perfluoro-n-hexanoic acid听
PFHpA 375-85-9 perfluoro-n-heptanoic acid听
PFOA 335-67-1 perfluoro-n-octanoic acid听
PFNA 375-95-1 perfluoro-n-nonanoic acid听
PFDA 335-76-2 perfluoro-n-decanoic acid听
PFUnDA 2058-94-8 perfluoro-n-undecanoic acid听
PFDoDA 307-55-1 perfluoro-n-dodecanoic acid听
PFTrDA 72629-94-8 perfluoro-n-tridecanoic acid听
PFTeDA 376-06-7 perfluoro-n-tetradecanoic acid听
PFHxDA 67905-19-5 perfluoro-n-hexadecanoic acid听
PFOcDA 16517-11-6 perfluoro-n-octadecanoic acid听
PFBS 375-73-5 perfluoro-1-butanesulfonic acid听
PFPeS 2706-91-4 perfluoro-1-pentanesulfonic acid听
PFHxS 355-46-4 perfluoro-1-hexanesulfonic acid听
PFHpS 375-92-8 perfluoro-1-heptanesulfonic acid听
L-PFOS 1763-23-1 perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid听
br-PFOS听 听 听 听 听 听 听 听 perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid听
PFOS Sum L and br听听听听听听听 perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid听
PFNS 68259-12-1 perfluoro-1-nonanesulfonic acid听
PFDS 335-77-3 perfluoro-1-decanesulfonic acid听
PFUnDS 749786-16-1 perfluoro-1-undecanesulfonic acid听
PFDoDS 79780-39-5 perfluoro-1-dodecanesulfonic acid听
PFTrDS 791563-89-8 perfluoro-1-tridecanesulfonic acid听
PFECHS 646-83-3 perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexanesulfonic acid听
HFPO-DA/GenX 13252-13-6 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)propanoic acd听
HFPO-TA 13252-14-7 perfluoro-2,5-dimethyl-3,6-dioxanonanoic acid听
DONA 919005-14-4 dodecafluoro-3H-4,8-dioxanonanoic acid听
PFMOPA 377-73-1 perfluoro-4-oxapentanoic acid听
NFDHA 151772-58-6 perfluoro-3,6-dioxaheptanoic acid听
PFMOBA 863090-89-5 perfluoro-5-oxahexanoic acid听
3:3 FTCA 356-02-5 3-perfluoropropyl propanoic acid听
5:3 FTCA 914637-49-3 3-perfluoropentyl propanoic acid听
7:3 FTCA 812-70-4 3-perfluoroheptyl propanoic acid听
PFEESA 113507-82-7 perfluoro-(2-ethoxyethane)-sulfonic acid听
F-53B Major 756426-58-1 9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-1-sulfonic acid听
F-53B Minor 763051-92-9 11-chloroeicosafluoro-3-oxaundecane-1-sulfonic acid听
4:2 FTSA 757124-72-4 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorohexane sulfonic acid听
6:2 FTSA 27619-97-2 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctane sulfonic acid听
8:2 FTSA 39108-34-4 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecane sulfonic acid听
10:2 FTSA 120226-60-0 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorododecane sulfonic acid听
FBSA 30334-69-1 perfluoro-1-butanesulfonamide听
FHxSA 41997-13-1 perfluoro-1-hexanesulfonamide听
PFOSA 754-91-6 perfluoro-1-octanesulfonamide听
N-AP-FHxSA 50598-28-2 N-(3-dimethylaminopropan-1-yl)perfluoro1hexanesulfonamide听
N-MeFOSAA 2355-31-9 N-methylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamidoacetic acid听
N-EtFOSAA 2991-50-6 N-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamidoacetic acid听
N-MeFOSA 31506-32-8 N-methylperfluoro-1-octansulfonamide听
N-EtFOSA 4151-50-2 N-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamide听
MeFOSE 24448-09-7 2-(N-methylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamido)-ethanol听
EtFOSE 1691-99-2 2-(N-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamido)-ethanol听
6:2 FTAB 34455-29-3 carboxyMeDiMe-3-[[(tridecaFlOct)sulfl]amino]prop amm hydrox听
6:2 diPAP 57677-95-9 bis(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl) phosphate听

On 7 December 2022, the European Commission for听perfluoroalkyl substances in food that would apply from 1 January 2023 onwards.听Foodstuffs lawfully placed on the market before this date, could remain on the market until their date of minimum durability or use-by date.

Limits would apply to a range of food matrices as outlined in the Annex to regulation (EC) No1881/2006 in the New 鈥淪ection 10: Perfluoroalkyl substances.听Limits have been set for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS with the maximum level applying to the sum of both the linear and branched stereoisomers.

澳门玄机图 can now offer analysis of these perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) by Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-QQQ) and can also supply analysis of a larger range of other PFAS if required.